Farm records are the mirror of a dairy farm and also the progress report which tells us where more efforts are need to be done.
India our country was once considered as golden bird but now the condition has totally reversed, we are now at top of the list of most populous, unhappy and undernourished nations.
The population of our country is expected to increase by 2050 to 170 crore and one of the important challenge ahead is food and nutritional security. The increased rate of climate change is further exaggerating the condition.
Pig production can act as a important tool against this upcoming challenge. Pork is the most consumed meat throughout world mainly ( 30% of total meat) but in our country this sector never got required attention. Pig meat is most nutritious, contain high energy and high fat content which make it tasty too. Pigs are unique from other farm animals as they are highly prolific ( 8 – 10 ) piglets per farrowing, have short gestation period( 115 days), superior feed conversion efficiency (FCR =3).
In India pigs are not prefered as in people’s mind it has set that pigs live in dirt and are dirty animals, but the real truth is that in India pigs are reared mainly by people of low socio-economic stratum and they usually left them loose as it is impossible for them to provide these omnivores good quality grains.
Think again…… why people of developed nations have great likeness for pork……….There is great need to bring change in peoples prospective towards pig rearing. Scientific pig farming is need of hour. Pork from scitifically reared pig farm is healthy.
It is a big issue in India, that farmer’s do not get sufficient price for their crops on the other hand price for that commodity itself paid by end users are so high.
PM Modi ji on their public address in 2016 emphasised for doubling farmer’s income by 2022, thereby in next budget that issue got financial and official support. Now government and other allied departments are trying to increase the farmer’s income through intense programmes, trainings on improved techniques, availability of improved crop varities, skill India programmes . All efforts are done to achieve goal of doubling farmer’s income by 2022.
One approach for increasing farmer’s income can be large scale co-operative societies like amul. The main purpose of founding amul in 1946 was also same, to provide dairy animal keepers the price they deserve, who were exploited at that time by middle man and foreign dairy company (Polson dairy).
Milk and crops being a different commodity so different plan for effective working of these societies is needed. This will also improve the quality of crop and their byproducts reaching to the customers.
Dairy enterprise involve several complex activities, care and management of calf is one of them. Having sound knowledge regarding different feeding concepts can contribute to better health and farm profitability. Let us understand the concept of milk replacer and calf starter.
Milk Replacer: It is a constituted feed that have nutritional value almost similar to normal milk. It is economical to give calf milk replacer, as milk is a high priced commodity.
Feeding calf with milk replacer has double benefits 1) economic raising of calf 2) save milk.
Feed ingredients in standard milk replacer – 1) Wheat flour 2) Fish meal 3) Linseed meal 4) Molasses 5) Mineral mixture 6) Milk Source: NDRI, Karnal.
Calf Starter: It is feed mixture with high quality feed ingredients to provide energy and protein to calf. It should have high digestibility and high protein and energy.
Quality of standard calf starter
a) Protein should be 23-26% b) DCP – Atleast 18% c) TDN – 75%
Calf starter is crucial for rumen development and early weaning. Calf should get it right from 14 day and start with small amount.
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Cows are very popular among livestock farmers and therefore, their management issues must be addressed time to time. In India cows are mainly kept for milk production.
Due to low milk production of our indigenous breeds, it was felt that crossbreeding is necessary and will improve the production hence, crossbreeding programme was extensively practiced after 1970, with government breeding policies and veterinary support farmers shifts to crossbred animals and now the population of crossbred animals have reached to more than 39 millions.
Now the important thing to focus here, is that these crossbreds animals are having exotic genes that favour more production, more growth and at the same time adaptation to tropical environment is somewhat difficult and thus need more care and attention than our native breeds.
Moreover lactating cows are always susceptible to diseases especially, infectious diseases as considerable amount of neutrophils are drained out through milk which are the first line of defence making them immunosuppressed and thus management become more important. This management should cover all four dimensions of animal production management for profitable farming including balanced feeding, proper and comfortable housing and health management.
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